Sebastian Raubitzek, Thomas Neubauer, Jan Friedrich, and Andreas Rauber. Interpolating strange attractors via fractional brownian bridges. Entropy, 24(5), 2022. ISSN 1099-4300. doi: 10.3390/e24050718. URL 

We present a novel method for interpolating univariate time series data. The proposed method combines multi-point fractional Brownian bridges, a genetic algorithm, and Takens’; theorem for reconstructing a phase space from univariate time series data. The basic idea is to first generate a population of different stochastically-interpolated time series data, and secondly, to use a genetic algorithm to find the pieces in the population which generate the smoothest reconstructed phase space trajectory. A smooth trajectory curve is hereby found to have a low variance of second derivatives along the curve. For simplicity, we refer to the developed method as PhaSpaSto-interpolation, which is an abbreviation for phase-space-trajectory-smoothing stochastic interpolation. The proposed approach is tested and validated with a univariate time series of the Lorenz system, five non-model data sets and compared to a cubic spline interpolation and a linear interpolation. We find that the criterion for smoothness guarantees low errors on known model and non-model data. Finally, we interpolate the discussed non-model data sets, and show the corresponding improved phase space portraits. The proposed method is useful for interpolating low-sampled time series data sets for, e.g., machine learning, regression analysis, or time series prediction approaches. Further, the results suggest that the variance of second derivatives along a given phase space trajectory is a valuable tool for phase space analysis of non-model time series data, and we expect it to be useful for future research.